coal or other fuel. 22 49 In 1941, the last remaining Polish public library in the German-occupied territories was closed in Warsaw. Retrieved on March 20, 2008 a b c Madajczyk 1970,. . 38 It was expected that Polish children would begin to work once they finished their primary education at age 12. Żuchowskiego, Toruń ( Sztuka i Kultura,. 184 a b c Salmonowicz 1994,. . 108 Underground postage stamps were designed and issued. 123 Madajczyk 1970,. . 225 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 115 Since the Germans also banned Polish sport activities, underground sport clubs were created; underground football matches and even tournaments were organized in Warsaw, Kraków and Poznań, although these were usually dispersed by the Germans. The worst conditions were found in the Reichsgau Wartheland, which the Nazis treated as a laboratory for their anti-religious policies. Not to mention that politicians constantly make use. 80 81 Other organizations were created locally; after 1940 they were increasingly subordinated and coordinated by the TON, working closely with the Underground's State Department of Culture and Education, which was created in autumn 1941 and headed by Czesław Wycech, creator of the TON. 118 Ferguson 2006,. . Ze studiów nad typologią portretu renesansowego, in: Rafael i jego spadkobiercy. 126 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 11 Several non-public indexes of prohibited books were created, and over 1,500 Polish writers were declared "dangerous to the German state and culture". Druga wojna światowa Archived at the Wayback Machine, Encyklopedia PWN, Retrieved on (in Polish) Mirosław Adam Supruniuk, Malarstwo polskie w Wielkiej Brytanii - prace i dokumenty Archived at the Wayback Machine, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika, Retrieved on vies 2005,. . Catholic Church and wealthy individuals contributed to the survival of some artists and their works. 227 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 34 To forestall the rise of a new generation of educated Poles, German officials decreed that the schooling of Polish children would be limited to a few years of elementary education. 226 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 7 Then, in October, the printing of new Polish-language books was prohibited; existing titles were censored, and often confiscated and withdrawn. 48 Soon after the occupation began, most libraries were closed; in Kraków, about 80 of the libraries were closed immediately, while the remainder saw their collections decimated by censors. 73 He reversed his decision again, however, when a need arose for Polish-language pro-Soviet propaganda following the German invasion of the Soviet Union ; as a result Stalin permitted the creation of Polish forces in the East and later decided. 112 Polish music, including orchestras, also went underground. 29 Portrait of a Young Man, by Raphael,. This policy was, however, reversed at timesfirst before the elections in October 1939; 74 and later, after the German conquest of France.